Scientists have been exploring several possible locations for Atlantis, which is, according to Plato, »the island beyond the pillars of Hercules«: Malta, Cuba, the Bahamas, Santorini etc. Here is the theory regarding the original location of the Pillars of Hercules which allows for the possibility that Atlantis was located in today's Adriatic Basin.

                Palagruža - archipelago in the middle of the Adriatic Sea

Silent Witnesses of Destruction

Fatih Hodzic

Atlantis was an ancient kingdom, a state with a perfect social system, the cradle of civilization, an island »beyond the Pillars of Hercules«. This is what Plato, a classical Greek philosopher, wrote about Atlantis in his dialogues »Timaeus« and »Critias« in about 350 BC. Critias, who was a Greek politician and writer, relates in his papers on the state, law and justice that in 571 BC Athenian statesman Solon visited Egypt and met with priests in the town of Sais where he was told a story about »an island named Atlantis, the heart of a great and wonderful kingdom«.

Plato wrote that »there occurred violent earthquakes and floods; and in a single day and night of misfortune all your warlike men in a body sank in the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner disappeared in the depths of the sea«. There are numerous ancient accounts of the catastrophe of such extent. Even though they are dominated by mythical themes, the narrations contain convincing descriptions of the sinking which can be analyzed and confirmed scientifically.

Up until 250 BC Greek writers (Dicaearchus, Pytheas...) placed the Pillars of Hercules near Sicily. After subsequent discoveries of new territories the mythological sites moved away and were placed on the fringes of the then known world. Ancient Greek mathematician and geographer Eratosthenes »transferred« the Pillars of Hercules to Gibraltar (earlier, for Phoenician Pillars of Melqart, "Lord of Tyre", in Greek, by interpretatio graeca, Melqart was identified with Heracles) while nowadays the scientists are exploring the possible locations of the sunken island in the Atlantic Ocean: on Cuba, the Bahamas etc.

Eratosthene's world (reconstruction)

The aforementioned theory about the pillars locations offers enough indications that the Pillars of Hercules can be »moved« again, or rather returned to their place in Solon's era: to the Strait of Otranto, which connects the Ionian and Adriatic Seas and is located 360 kilometers from Sicily. One of the continents in the sea, the Palagruža Sill, divides the Adriatic Sea into the shallow northern part and the southern part with the South Adriatic Basin in the great syncline.

Hercules transmits pillars
(16th century, Museo civico Ala Ponzone-Cremona)

In front of the Strait of Otranto – the Pillars of Hercules – where the Adriatic Sea is at its widest and deepest, lies the South Adriatic Basin and Palagruža Sill - the location of the sunken island of Atlantis which corresponds to Plato's descriptions in every detail! The Adriatic Basin, lies in the sea not far from Albania, Montenegro and southern Croatia, opposite Apulia, the region in southern Italy from where »...was the way to other islands, and from these you might pass to the whole of the opposite continent which surrounded the true ocean.«


Adriatic basin - Location of flooden Island Atlantis

Before the Flood this area was part of the kingdom of Atlantis which also comprised other islands and the continent around the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. The southern and central parts of the "island" were flat like the coastlines of nearby Apulia, Albania and flat nearby Po river. The northern part was mountainous and abundant in forests, rivers and lakes. Not far from the island, which was said »to be very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea«, lies the Gargano Promontory on the Apennine Peninsula. On the other side of the Adriatic Sea there is the mountainous region of the Dinarides, from the Alps in the north to the Prokletije range and Šar Mountains.

Due to the extraordinary location and the Mediterranean climate, the influence of the cold north was negligible, or as Plato wrote: »This part of the island looked towards the south, and was sheltered from the north.«

The Adriatic Basin lies in the Alpine-Mediterranean belt, where the active edges of two continental plates – the African and the Eurasian – meet. Some of the records about events in the history (the sinking of Santorini, the eruptions of Mounts Vesuvius, Etna, Stromboli etc.) talk about the catastrophic consequences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

One of the possible events which triggered the chain reaction in an unstable environment and caused a catastrophe of unspoken proportions was the fall of an asteroid. This possibility is indicated by huge caves in the  Tyrrhenian Sea or Ionian Sea not far from the Gulf of Taranto and is also supported by a story about the fall of an asteroid which was told to Solon by a priest from Sais: »There is a story, which even you have preserved, that once upon a time Paethon, the son of Helios, having yoked the steeds in his father’s chariot, because he was not able to drive them in the path of his father, burnt up all that was upon the earth, and was himself destroyed by a thunderbolt …« And he explained: »Now this has the form of a myth, but really signifies a declination of the bodies moving in the heavens around the earth, and a great conflagration of things upon the earth, which recurs after long intervals.« After the asteroid falling and the heat wave which followed, the most energy was released in the form of tsunamis, extremely high waves. The sinking and devastation were accompanied by destructive earthquakes. Parts of the Adriatic micro plate broke off and sank. The areas of land and sea changed throughout centuries after the cataclysm. Thick clouds of dust and ashes in the highest layers of the atmosphere created all necessary conditions for extreme climatic changes and cooling. Judging from the geological periods and time stated by the priests from Sais, the cataclysm occurred around 8500 BC. This period belongs to the cold Paleolithic and the beginning of the Holocene epoch with the Mesolithic Age when the climate finally stabilized.


The epoch of Atlantis started when it was awarded to one of the »gods«, Poseidon. The island boasted natural resources and beauty, later also urban towns and an imposingly built metropolis, the royal city. Part of the metropolis with the temple of Poseidon and the royal palace of Atlant, the oldest Poseidon’s son, was surrounded by three concentric sea channels. Inhabitants of Atlantis raised walls around the channels and »placed towers and gates on the bridges where the sea passed in«. The kingdom of Atlantis encompassed the Balkan Peninsula (Greek regions and the Dinarides) and the Apennine Peninsula up to Tyrrhenia (named Tuscany today) and reached down to Malta and Crete in the south. This territory of the kingdom »was greater in extent than Libya and Asia«. The period of expansion in the Mediterranean was marked by the conflicts and wars between the forces of Atlantis and ancient Athenians, who were much like the Atlanteans the descendants of »the fairest and noblest race of men which ever lived«. Plato indirectly speaks about the law-abiding kings of Atlantis and their divine nature which gradually disappeared by procreating with mortals. Due to genetic identity and co-dependency of mortals and immortals, the number of human elements in the »god’s« seeds increased. The final situation on Atlantis was represented by »the domination of the human ethos« and the beginning of wars for the throne, such as the battle with ancient Athenians. Critias speaks about the military force of kings »which unprovoked made an expedition against the whole of Europe and Asia, and to which your city put an end. This power came forth out of the Atlantic Sea, for in those days the Atlantic was navigable«. During the wars »there occurred violent earthquakes and floods; and in a single day and night of misfortune all your warlike men in a body sank into the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner disappeared in the depths of the sea«. Solon also heard that »there was a time, before the great deluge of all, when the city which now is Athens was first in war and in every way the best governed of all cities, is said to have performed the noblest deeds and to have had the fairest constitution of any of which tradition tells, under the face of heaven …«


There are interesting similarities between Critias’ statements about Atlantis and the characteristics of the Adriatic Basin:
In Solon’s era the phrase »the city which now is Athens« referred to parts of Greece, Dalmatia, southern Italy and Albania.

Critias spoke about a plateau which »was for the most part rectangular and oblong, and where falling out of the straight line followed the circular ditch«. The Adriatic Basin (the Adriatic plain) actually has a form of a rectangle whose opposite sides go from north to south and from west to east.The Atlanteans used stone for building: »one kind was white, another black, and a third red«. White and black stone is still quarried on Island Brač (Croatia) and red stone in the Bay of Kotor (Montenegro).
»There was an abundance of wood for carpenter's work, and sufficient maintenance for tame and wild animals. Moreover, there were a great number of elephants in the island.«
The remnants of elephant skeletons have been found in central and southern Italy as well as on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea close to Island Pag and Dramlje near the town of Crikvenica (Croatia). The skeletons date back to the Pleistocene, more than 9000 years before Hannibal’s march with elephants to Rome.
The Atlanteans dug and melted ores as well as mined and used orichalcum or brass – a copper-zinc alloy. The territory along the Adriatic Basin is rich in ores and minerals, including copper and zinc. There are many forests as well as rivers and cold- and thermal water springs.

In the vicinity of the sunken island, there are unique inland seas on Mljet (Croatia), the island of underground dwellings, caves and mud-lakes. Up until 9000 BC the inland seas contained fresh water.

Jabuka and Brusnik are two of the 1185 islands in the Adriatic Sea which were formed when lava flow reached the sea. Along with Island Palagruža, which is of partial volcanic origin, they form the »Adriatic volcanic triangle«.

The Mediterranean and the Central European regions which were devastated by the sinking and destruction are undoubtedly sources of great archaeological treasures. Some of the treasures are attributed to the Neolithic period and the Mediterranean impresso-ceramic culture. The ruins of ancient castles (Amantia, Meteon, Daorson, Asseria etc.) are ascribed to the Iron Age and the Hellenistic culture. The remnants from the buildings of the Atlantean kingdom, which were scattered across a huge area during the cataclysm, are proof of existence of this incomprehensible and unimaginable culture. The examples of »scattered« artefacts are stone balls in Bosnia, a bronze sky disk in Nebra, a statue of Venus in Willendorf which is over 20,000 years old etc.


Statues of Venus: from Willendorf, Vinča, Tripolye, Murska Sobota ...

This group also includes the unique monumental stone blocks or the so-called stećaks, which are spread throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina, southern Croatia, western Montenegro and southwestern Serbia. The most typical and impressive examples of scattered artefacts are stećak tombstones – commonly known but still unexplained monolithic stones in Bosnia and its surrounding areas.
                                                                                    Necropolis with stećaks   


Stećaks are formally regarded as tombstones which mark the medieval culture, yet they are very unusual and mysterious and not sufficiently explained and explored.There are 69,356 stećaks recorded on 3,162 locations. Most of them, 59,593 or 86 per cent, are in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Because their number is so high, they are associated with the Bosnian Church and the medieval state of Bosnia. But even though stećaks were mainly used for the graves of members of the Bosnian Church, it is strange that not even one »djed« – the highest priest in the hierarchy of this church – was found buried under one of the stećaks.

Locations and density of necropoleis with stećaks  

Among all recorded stećaks, relief motifs were found on fewer than 6,000 and the inscriptions on fewer than 400. Of all inscriptions and found written records, not even one mentions stone-cutting in quarries or their transportation – there is only one phrase about the transfer of one stećak, which says that »one hundred oxen were harnessed and one hundred rams were eaten«.In the vicinity of Kakanj in Bosnia, there is a site with 14 stećaks in the form of sarcophagi, prisms and a few slabs. Some of those stećaks are in the ground and as many others these function as cenotaphs – symbolic tombstones without graves. Nobody is buried beneath them and there is no trace of burial. Under half a meter of soil, there are veins and layers of coal.

                                                         Stećaks: Necropolises on Visocica by Konjic


These contradictions have not been reliably explained yet, but our common sense tells us that stećaks are a lot older. Even their name is a giveaway – stećak means »standing«, »big« and also »resistant«. Significantly, necropolises with stećaks are found in a limited area in the form of a ''circular sector'' with the radius of 350 kilometers and the surface of 50,000 square kilometers. This area consists of the Dubrovnik-Neretva county, southern Herzegovina where the concentration of stećaks is the highest, and northern Bosnia and Croatia along the Sava and Una rivers where the sites are few and far between. In the first zone with the radius of 200 kilometers, where the necropolises are the most numerous and widespread, heavy sarcophagi and high, prism-shaped stećaks are predominant. This zone includes regions of southern Dalmatia, southern Herzegovina and western Montenegro. In the second zone with the radius up to 300 kilometers, where there are still many necropolises which are unevenly distributed, stećaks in the shape of sarcophagi, prisms, slabs and columns are predominant. This zone consists of Dalmatian Zagora, western Herzegovina, central and eastern Bosnia, northern Montenegro and southwestern Serbia. The third zone with the radius of up to 350 kilometers, where the necropolises are scarce, smaller sarcophagi, slabs and columns prevail. This zone consists of the Šibenik-Knin county in Croatia, northern Bosnia and western Serbia.

Zones in circular sector

If stećaks and cenotaphes are taken out of the historical context as legacy of medieval culture, there are still 69.356 stone blocks left! Considering their space and time dimension properties they are a phenomena that shows the consequences of a Flood and directly on the location of the sunken island.Excluding the notion that stećaks and cenotaphs are a legacy of a medieval culture, there are still 69,356 stone blocks left! In regard to their location and age, they are a phenomenon which indicates the consequences of the ancient sinking and directly points to the location of the sunken island.

The theory which rejects the myth of Atlantis and regards it as historical fact is based on the following premises: 

·     The fall of an asteroid triggered natural forces: earthquakes, tsunamis, the sinking. Most parts of Europe and northern Africa were flooded by the sea. The destructive wave washed over Atlantis from the south - southwest to the north.
·      The consequences of the floods are manifested in alluvial material and layers of silt, sand and other materials on the broader region of southern Italy, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the bottom of the Adriatic Sea. The alluvia of small stones agglutinated with sand and clay and created breccia and a conglomerate, sedimentary stone which can be found in the mountainous parts of Albania, Bosnia and Croatia, along with fossilized sea organisms.
·     A tsunami scattered the stone blocks across a circular sector area. The areas closer to the sea were more exposed to the destructive forces of the giant waves, so more stone blocks, which were also bigger in size, were scattered there. In the Dinaric region most stone blocks or necropolises with stećaks were situated on the south side and on mountain slopes facing the sea.
·      The center of the circular sector is part of the tectonic fabric of the Adriatic micro plate in the southern part of the Adriatic Sea.The stone blocks–monuments cut in a certain period and space are legacy and indigenous treasure of the kingdom of Atlantis. Stone blocks–stećaks which were later hewn and decorated with inscriptions and reliefs are legacy of the culture from the Bosnian Church era. As monuments and as stećaks they are a valuable treasure from both prehistoric and medieval times. They are silent witnesses of an ancient cataclysm and artefacts of two cultures. Before the sinking the South Adriatic Basin and Palagruža Sill in the Adriatic Sea was the original location of the stone blocks–monuments. This area in the sea is where sunken Atlantis, the cradle of our civilization, has been lying for a hundred and more centuries. And then...  

Critias speaks about the city and the environs of the ancient palace nearly in the words of Solon »and now I must endeavour to represent the nature and arrangement of the rest of the land. The whole country was said by him to be very lofty and precipitous on the side of the sea, but the country immediately about and surrounding the city was a level plain, itself surrounded by mountains which descended towards the sea; it was smooth and even, and of an oblong shape, extending in one direction three thousand stadia, but across the centre inland it was two thousand stadia. This part of the island looked towards the south, and was sheltered from the north. The surrounding mountains were celebrated for their number and size and beauty, far beyond any which still exist, having in them also many wealthy villages of country folk, and rivers, and lakes, and meadows supplying food enough for every animal, wild or tame, and much wood of various sorts, abundant for each and every kind of work«.

11.000 years ago

the area of todays north and middle Adriatic sea was land, part of large adriatic plain...



(about Atlantis,  the Megaliths...   about Human Development,  the Consciousness...)

Since the Arrival of the Upright Man
The first upright man, the common ancestor of all people lived in areas of Africa more than 1.5 million years ago. He was a man of the hominin tribe and by genus a Homo erectus. Descendants and later generations of Homo erectus settled gradually, apart from Africa, in areas of Europe and Asia, where they evolved through a number of species and subspecies, from Homo antecessora, Heidelberg, Rhodesian and Beijing man to Neanderthals, Cro-Magnon, etc. The human species Homo sapiens appears in one continuous development of vertical men, becoming more distinct and separated by habitat, their geographic area. It is primarily on the African, European (Mediterranean) and the Asian pool and a time frame between 200,000 - 70,000 years ago that this happened. Thus, starting with Homo erectus, a common African ancestor, ancestors of archaic and modern humans in Europe were the Homo anteccesor, Heidelberg man and the Neanderthal, and the ancestors of modern humans in Asia were Homo georgicus the Peking Man, and in Africa, Homo ergaster, Homo gautengensis, Homo rhodensiensis and the African type of the Heidelberg man. Their common ancestor, Homo erectus evolved from the Homo habilis species, whose ancestors have been in the genus Australopithecus africanus, one of transitional forms in the development of hominids...

                                                    pdfSince the Arrival of the Upright Man (.pdf 171KB)

The Unknown Era of the Megalith
Just as we do today, so have generations of descendants of megalithic builders wondered about the monumental and mysterious megalithic buildings. In the old traditions and beliefs, megalithic builders have acquired increasing features of people with supernatural, almost divine powers and abilities. So it is not unusual that these same megalithic builders were recognized as characters in a number of mythological motifs that are honored and invoked in the rites and rituals. When the construction sites of megaliths - especially on European soil – are shown on the ancient Greek world maps, ones from times of Home, Hesiod and Hecataeus, interesting details can be observed. Where some of the oldest and most magnificent megalithic monuments are, the old Greek charts are showing them as elision and happy paradise islands in the outer ocean or as a temporary residence of the deceased and the demigods and gods. The area west of Sicily to the mouth of the river and the islands of Corsica and Sardinia are places where Cyclops, satyrs, centaurs, Lamia, Scylla and Charybdis lived... Strange creatures, half-human and half-animal which Odysseus encountered sailing lost in the seas.
About the divine and divinity in the superhuman megalithic builders remain myths and legends to be told. About the ability of these same people in some different exceptional circumstances on Earth, thousands of megalithic buildings and structures are telling the tale. One of the megalithic builders could be renamed as Hercules, who not only set but replaced its monumental pillars...

                                                      pdfThe Unknown Era of the Megalith (.pdf 199KB)

On principles of consciousness - A novel hypothesis
Based on studies of activities in the diencephalon, the reticular formation and the workspace of the thalamus and the hippocampus, it is important to accentuate the role of the latter as a pacemaker in creating thalamic activity and activation waves. The appearance of waves, synchronous oscillations and rhythmic activities in reticular-thalamic and limbic system lead to the majority of cortical activations. In addition, the role of myelin and myelin proteins in a cognitive model of conscious processes is perceived in a completely different light. Myelin is essential for normal functioning of the nerve fibers and crucial for activities and activations in the central nervous system - CNS. Understanding the thalamic-limbic activity and the thalamic dopaminergic system, the role of myelin and the relatively high content of myelin in the thalamic activation and processing system (in the thalamus, the hippocampus and basal ganglia) as  the correlates of consciousness, is certainly a beginning for understanding the principles of consciousness...

                                                     pdfHypothesis - On Principles of Consciousness (.pdf 696KB)



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